Sunday, September 3, 2017

AILA: Denuncia del indulto presidencial del ex-sheriff Arpaio

American Indian Law Alliance
Organizacion No-Gubermental  reconocida como entidad consultiva por el Consejo Económico y Social de las Naciones Unidas



27 de agosto de 2017

La Alianza de Ley Indio Americano (American Indian Law Alliance - AILA) denuncia el reciente indulto por el presidente estadounidense, Donald Trump, de Joe Arpaio, ex sheriff del condado de Maricopa en Arizona. Este acto despreciable de Trump envía un mensaje inequívoco a los "nacionalistas blancos" a través de los Estados Unidos y alrededor del mundo que puede incitar aún más a actos violentos de racismo contra Pueblos Indígenas. Joe Arpaio fue recientemente declarado culpable de desacato criminal por desobedecer una orden de la corte federal estadounidense en un caso de perfil racial.

Tal perdón para un agente de policía del estado de Arizona que ha sido encontrado culpable de usar los poderes de la oficina del sheriff del condado de Maricopa para conducir una "guerra de desgaste" contra los miembros más vulnerables de la comunidad en Arizona, disfrazado como “aplicación de la ley de inmigración", es absurdo, chocante y una amenaza para la paz internacional.

La aprobación de Trump de estas tácticas ilegales diseñadas para acosar, aterrorizar y deshumanizar a la gente de color, muestra claramente su sello de aprobación y la plena participación en el racismo institucional.  Esta mentalidad de superioridad se deriva de la Doctrina del Descubrimiento 1492 que continúa perpetuando los sentimientos detrás de la idea de "hacer a América grande de nuevo". En realidad, el escenario que emana de la presidencia de Trump no se trata de "hacer de nuevo a América grande", sino de volver a hacer a América en la imagen y al servicio de las élites "blancas", sin embargo -  estas tierras de la Gran Isla Tortuga nunca han sido "la tierra del hombre blanco" para empezar.

El perdón de Arpaio por parte del presidente Trump cierra la esperanza de cualquier remedio domestico para encontrar la justicia y la rendición de cuentas por los abusos de derechos humanos perpetrados por Arpaio y el sistema que el construyó como sheriff durante veinte años, un sistema que se mantiene vigente bajo una nueva administración.

En informes de nuestros familiares de O'otham Jevedga, Territorios Tradicionales de las Naciones O'otham, donde Arpaio tiene su base política en Arizona, sabemos que los abusos de los Derechos Humanos y las violaciones de los Derechos de nuestros Pueblos Indígenas continúan sin cesar e incluso crecen en odio y la intensidad. Es inaceptable que las agencias del estado sean cómplices de esta maquinación diabólica que deforma nuestra humanidad común. Es una continuación en nuestros tiempos de la Doctrina del Descubrimiento (12 de octubre de 1492), adaptada para adaptar la doctrina de la "supremacía blanca" a una época en que las poblaciones "blancas americanas" se han convertido en una minoría numérica en los mismos estados de colonización que ellos crearon. Arizona mismo es un estado que fue creado sobre la base de "Animus Racial" por los anglo-americanos cuya llegada en el territorio entró en guerra abierta sobre las Naciones Originarias de Pueblos Indígenas.

Reconociendo estos hechos históricos, respaldamos la convocatoria de un Tribunal Internacional de Justicia para abordar las cuestiones de las violaciones de los Derechos Civiles, los Derechos Humanos y los Derechos Indígenas en los territorios de O'otham Jevedga, Territorios Tradicionales de las Naciones O'otham [Condado de Maricopa, Arizona] en el Espíritu de la Paz Mundial.

Respaldamos el llamamiento a la Comunidad Internacional por parte de nuestros familiares de los Pueblos Indígenas de México que viven en el O’otham Jevedga para investigar el perdón de Arpaio como violación de la Paz establecida en 1848 por el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo entre México y EE.UU. que puso fin a la guerra iniciada por Estados Unidos contra México, una guerra impulsada por la lujuria de la expansión territorial de Estados Unidos bajo el régimen racista de Destino Manifiesto (1845).



Respaldamos la convocatoria de que cuando se establezca un Tribunal Internacional de Justicia y se compilen pruebas históricas para enjuiciar las violaciones de los derechos civiles, los derechos humanos y los derechos indígenas en los territorios de O’otham Jevedga, que estos procedimientos no serán perjudicados por la Doctrina del Descubrimiento de La Cristiandad, que se ha inscrito jurídicamente en ley de los Estados Unidos bajo la decisión de la Corte Suprema por el caso  Johnson v. M'Intosh (1823), doctrina legaloide que ha sido denunciada, repudiada y desmantelada como un concepto.


Como punto de referencia inicial para tal Tribunal Internacional de Justicia, recomendamos que sea considerado la intervención titulada In Imiuh Tenamaxtle al Foro Permanente para las Cuestiones Indígenas (2012) de Naciones Unidas por la fundadora de AILA y presidenta Tonya Gonnella Frichner (Nación Onondaga). Esta intervención es un Informe del Foro de los Pueblos Indígenas sobre la Doctrina del Descubrimiento, realizado en el Capitolio del Estado de Arizona el 12 de marzo de 2012 y puede servir para iniciar el proceso hacia un camino colectivo de justicia y paz para todos.

Respaldamos la petición por un Tribunal Internacional de Justicia para abordar estas cuestiones debido a la necesidad de avanzar juntos como las Confederaciones Indígenas de Paz de la humanidad que todavía sobreviven para hacer frente a las amenazas a nuestra supervivencia colectiva a medida que el caos climático global evidente con la aceleración del cambio climático. Sin justicia social como norma, con el pleno reconocimiento y respeto por los derechos humanos de los pueblos Indígenas, no habrá esperanza real para realizar la justicia climática en nuestra vida o en la de las futuras generaciones.


Es contundente que Trump haría este anuncio con respecto al perdón de Arpaio mientras que los constituyentes que él gobierna se prepararon para un huracán de la categoría 4 a lo largo de la costa de Texas. Los poderes de la naturaleza no serán negados, pero tampoco no es innato en la naturaleza humana ser racista o "blanco”. Se trata de conceptos culturales que fomentan la inseguridad y el temor, que inevitablemente conducen a la violencia en todas sus formas, incluida la violencia sancionada por el estado disfrazada de ley, como ejemplo la AZ SB1070.

Muchos de los que son falsamente etiquetados como "inmigrantes ilegales" bajo las políticas de Arpaio y Trump son Trabajadores Migrantes de Pueblos Originales cuyas historias como las Naciones Originales en el O'otham Jevedga tiene miles de años en la elaboración. Estas Naciones Originarias de Pueblos Indígenas son nuestros parientes, su existencia como la nuestra, como culturas y naciones precede a la historia de los estados y las fronteras internacionales impuestas a fuerza en sus territorios sin el Consentimiento Libre, Previo e Informado de los Pueblos Indígenas, como lo exige la Declaración de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos De Pueblos Indígenas (2007).


La situación es similar para nosotros como Haudenosaunee, cuyos derechos como Naciones Originarias son sistemáticamente violados cuando se nos impide pasar libremente, trabajar y disfrutar de la vida en nuestras tierras tradicionales, ya sea en el lado canadiense o estadounidense de la frontera internacional entre estos estados en el norte de la Gran Isla Tortuga, como llamamos nosotros el continente Norte Americano.



Lamentablemente, no es ninguna sorpresa de que el testimonio de que los sentimientos de racismo están siendo promocionados desde la más alta oficina del gobierno de los Estados Unidos. Nuestra Confederación Ancestral de las Cinco Naciones Haudenosaunee estuvieron presentes en 1776 en Filadelfia en el nacimiento de los Estados Unidos cuando rompieron vínculos como colonias de Inglaterra para convertirse en una federación de estados americanos. Es una tragedia histórica que se está desarrollando todavía hoy en día que Estados Unidos se construyó sobre el racismo, la teoría de supremacía blanca y las divisiones de clase y raza, construida sobre la colonización ilegal de tierras robadas y mediante la esclavización de pueblos indígenas y africanos.

Nos recuerdan las palabras del Tadodaho del Haudenosaunee:

    "¿Por qué la libertad de un hombre tiene que venir a costa de otro?"

Hay cualidades que las mujeres Haudenosaunee buscan en un líder de nuestras naciones. Las mujeres de los Haudenosaunee son responsables de la selección de nuestro liderazgo, observamos cómo nuestros hijos crecen para encontrar cualidades tales como fuerza (no intimidación), el honor, la integridad, la capacidad de cuidar una familia del Clan, la bondad, el orgullo (no arrogancia), y la humildad. Estamos decepcionados de que este mismo nivel de atención no se tome cuando se elevan los líderes de los EE.UU.

###


En este estudio preliminar se establece que la doctrina del descubrimiento se ha institucionalizado en las leyes y las políticas de ámbito nacional e internacional y que en ella radica la causa de las violaciones de los derechos humanos, tanto individuales como colectivos, de los pueblos indígenas. Esta situación ha dado lugar a que los Estados planteen reivindicaciones con respect de las tierras, los territories y los recursos de los pueblos indígenas y a que se apropien en masa de esos bienes. La doctrina del descubrimiento y una estructura holística a la que denominamos “marco de dominación” han tenido como consecuencia siglos de una extracción de recursos virtualmente ilimitada de los territorios tradicionales de los pueblos indígenas. Ello, a su vez, ha llevado al despojo y empobrecimiento de los pueblos indígenas y al cúmulo de problemas que cotidianamente enfrentan hoy en día.



Thursday, August 31, 2017

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

Concluding observations on the        
 Committee considered the combined twenty-first to twenty-third periodic reports of Canada (CERD/C/CAN/21-23), submitted in one document, at its 2566th and 2567th meetings (CERD/C/SR. 2566, CERD/C/SR. 2567), held on 14 and 15 August 2017. At its 2580th, 2581st and 2582nd meetings, held on 23 and 24 August, it adopted the following concluding observations.
          A.     Introduction
2.    The Committee welcomes the submission of the combined twenty-first to twenty-third periodic reports of the State party, which included responses to the concerns raised by the Committee in its previous concluding observations. The Committee welcomes the open and constructive dialogue with the State party’s delegation.
           B.     Positive aspects
3.    The Committee welcomes the adoption of the following legislative and policy measures:
(a)       The establishment in 2016 of the Anti-Racism Directorate in Ontario to address systemic racism and to promote fair practices and policies across Ontario province.
(b)      Canada’s House of Commons condemnation of Islamophobia and all forms of systemic racism and religious discrimination in March 2017.
(c)       The work and final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of Canada released in 2015, titled Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future, which includes 94 calls to action to address historical and ongoing discrimination against Indigenous Peoples.
(d)      The Resettlement of 46,000 Syrian refugees in 2016, and the commitment to resettle 25,000 refugees in 2017.
(e)       Full restoration of the Interim Federal Health Programme to provide limited temporary health care coverage to eligible groups such as refugees in April 2016.
4.    The Committee welcomes the vibrant participation of representatives of the First Nations, Inuits and Métis and civil society organizations in the review of Canada. The Committee also greatly appreciates the contributions of the Canadian Human Rights Commission. 
          C.     Concerns and recommendations
                   Statistical data
5.    The Committee regrets again that the absence of recent reliable and comprehensive statistical data on the ethnic composition of the population, including disaggregated economic and social indicators for ethnic groups, African-Canadians, Indigenous Peoples, and non-citizens and the lack of detailed data and information on the representation of minority groups in public and political life in the State party, prevents it from evaluating the enjoyment of civil and political, economic, social and cultural rights in the State party by these groups. The Committee reiterates its concern of the continued use of the term “visible minority” in the State party to describe minority groups, as it renders invisible the differences in the lived experiences of diverse communities.
6.    Recalling its revised guidelines for reporting under the Convention (see CERD/C/2007/1, paras. 10-12),  the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)      Provide statistical data in its next periodic report on the demographic composition of the population, disaggregated in the manner specified in article 1, paragraph 1, of the Convention, on the basis of self-identification of ethnic groups, and Indigenous Peoples. 
(b)      Systematically collect disaggregated data in all relevant ministries and departments to improve monitoring  and evaluation of the implementation and impact of policies to eliminate racial discrimination and inequality.
(c)       Provide information in its next periodic report on economic and social indicators  for ethnic minority groups, Indigenous Peoples, and non-citizens, to enable the Committee to better evaluate their enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights in the State party.
(d)      Revise its use of the terminology “visible minority” in the Employment Equity Act, 1995, and in other legislation, as previously recommended (CERD/C/CAN/CO/19-20, para. 8).
                   Domestic applicability of the Convention
7.    The Committee regrets the lack of comprehensive information on the equal implementation of the Convention in all 10 provinces and 3 territories of the State party (art. 2).
8.    The Committee requests detailed information on the work of the intergovernmental Committee on supporting domestic implementation of the Convention and its efforts to ensure the equal application of the Convention at the federal, provincial and territorial levels. The Committee recommends that the State party create an accountability mechanism and ensure equal distribution of resources for the implementation of the Convention by the federal, provincial and territorial levels.
                   National Action Plan Against Racism
9.    While welcoming Ontario’s first provincial anti-racism strategy of March 2017, the Committee regrets the absence of a new National Action Plan Against Racism, applicable to the federal, provincial and territorial levels, since the elapse of the previous plan in 2010.
10. The Committee recommends that the State party develop and launch a new National Action Plan Against Racism, in compliance with its obligations under the World Conference Against Racism, through meaningful consultations process with  civil society organizations, including ethnic minorities and Indigenous Peoples, which includes implementing legislation, dedicated resources, targets, and adequate monitoring and reporting mechanisms, using good practices mentioned in Ontario’s anti-racism strategy of 2017. The Committee requests information in its next periodic report on the implementation and impact of Ontario’s anti-racism strategy, and other such strategies in the State party.  
                   Anti-racism legal framework
11. The Committee is concerned that an adequate anti-racism framework legislation meeting all of the requirements of article 4 is not yet in place in all provinces and territories in the State party (art. 4).
12. Recalling its general recommendation No. 7 (1985), No. 15 (1993) relating to the implementation of article 4 of the Convention, and No. 35 (2013) on combating racist hate speech, and reiterating its pervious recommendation (CERD/C/CAN/19-20, para. 13), the Committee recommends that the State party enact legislation in compliance with the requirements of article 4 in all provinces and territories.  
                   Racist Hate crimes
13. The Committee is  concerned that racist hate crimes continue to be underreported, and that the lack of updated systematic and coordinated tracking of racist hate crime data in all provinces and territories of the State party may mean that actual numbers of violations may be much higher. The Committee is concerned about the 61% increase on racist hate crimes reported against Muslims. The Committee is also concerned that the data provided by the State party on the implementation of anti-discrimination provisions, although it does indicate the number or extent of incidents and complaints submitted; it doesn´t indicate the number of ex officio prosecutions, investigations launched and convictions.
14. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)      Take steps to prevent racist hate crimes against all ethnic and minority groups, migrants and Indigenous Peoples in the State party.
(b)      Facilitate reporting by the victims, and ensure effective investigation of cases of racist hate crimes and prosecute and sanction perpetrators.
(c)       Systematically track and maintain data on the number of reported racist hate crimes, prosecutions,  convictions, sentences and penalties and compensation to victims and provide this data to the Committee in its next periodic report.
(d)      Provide mandatory training on recognition and registration of racist hate crimes and other racially motivated crimes to law enforcement officials and judges to ensure proper handling of these complaints,  and provide updated, detailed information and statistics in its next periodic report, including the time frame for when these trainings were conducted, how many people were trained, and any measurable impact.
(e)       Investigate and address the reasons for the 61% increase in racist hate crimes reported against Muslims and the rise of Islamophobia.
                   Racial profiling and disproportionate incarceration
15. The Committee is concerned by reports that racial profiling by the police, security agencies and border agents continue on a daily basis in the State party, with a harmful impact on Indigenous Peoples, as well as ethnic minority Muslims, African-Canadians, and other ethnic minority groups. The Committee is further concerned at the reported disproportionately high rate of incarceration of Indigenous Peoples and persons belonging to minority groups, in particular African-Canadians due to reasons such as socio-economic disparity, high rates of incarceration of minorities with mental or intellectual impairments, lack of appropriate community services, over-policing of certain populations, drug policies, and racially biased sentencing.  The Committee is further concerned at reports that both African-Canadian and Indigenous offenders are over represented in segregation, 50% of Indigenous inmate women have reportedly been placed in segregation, and that Indigenous inmates have the longest average stay in segregation.
16. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)      Ensure that law enforcement and security agencies have programmes  to prevent racial profiling, and that they are implemented and compliance monitored, including through independent oversight.
(b)      Make it mandatory to collect and analyze data at the federal, provincial, and territorial levels for random stops by law enforcement officers, including on the ethnicity of the persons stopped, reason for stop, and whether stop resulted in an arrest, prosecution and conviction, and report publicly on this data at regular intervals.  
(c)       Ensure that the staff in law enforcement and security agencies and among border agents are demographically diverse and include Indigenous Peoples, African-Canadians and other ethnic minorities. Ensure that all staff are trained in the prevention of racial discrimination, and on policies preventing racial profiling. Ensure lawyers and judges are trained on provisions relating to sentencing and alternatives to incarceration for Indigenous peoples, such as in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (sections 29, 77, 80, 81, and 84) and that these provisions are consistently applied. Provide updated, detailed information and statistics in its next periodic report on such training programmes and on the impact of such trainings.
(d)      Address the root causes of over-representation of African-Canadians  and Indigenous Peoples at all levels of the justice system, from arrest to incarceration, such as by eliminating poverty, providing better social services, re-examining drug policies, preventing racially biased sentencing through training of judges, providing evidence-based alternatives to incarceration for non-violent drug users, and fully implement the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission on this topic, in order to reduce the incarceration of African-Canadians and Indigenous Peoples.
(e)       Implement key health and harm reduction measures across all prisons.
(f)       Systematically collect data and report publically on the demographic composition of the prison population, including on Indigenous Peoples, African-Canadians and other ethnic minorities  and on the sentencing of minority offenders.
(g)      Effectively limit the use of segregation to exceptional circumstances, as a last resort and for as short a time as possible, in line with the Mandela Rules,  given its proven deleterious effects on mental health. Implement legislation to provide independent judicial oversight of all decisions related to segregation.
(h)      Abolish the use of segregation for inmates with mental or intellectual impairments. 
                   Truth and Reconciliation Commission and UN DRIP
17. While welcoming the commitment made to implement all of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC) 94 Calls to Action, the Committee is concerned at the lack of an action plan and full implementation. The Committee is further concerned that the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN DRIP) Action Plan has not yet been adopted, while noting the Ministerial working group established in 2017 to bring laws into compliance with obligations towards Indigenous Peoples.
18. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)      Develop a concrete action plan to implement the TRC’s 94 Calls to Action, in consultation with Indigenous Peoples.
(b)      Implement the UN DRIP, and adopt a legislative framework to implement the Convention including a national action plan, reform of national laws, policies and regulations to bring them into compliance with the Declaration, and annual public reporting.
(c)       Ensure that the action plans  include regular monitoring, evaluation, and annual reporting of the implementation, including the use of statistical data to evaluate progress.
(d)      Develop and implement training programs, in consultation with Indigenous Peoples, for State officials and employees on the TRC’s Calls to Action and the UN DRIP, to ensure their effective impact. 
(e)       Ensure that the Ministerial working group is transparent and inclusive of Indigenous Peoples.
                   Land rights of Indigenous Peoples
19. Taking note of the recent release of a set of 10 Principles Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples in 2017, the Committee is deeply concerned that:
(a)       Violations of the land rights of Indigenous Peoples continue in the State party, in particular environmentally destructive decisions for resource development which affect their lives and territories continue to be undertaken without the free, prior and informed consent of the Indigenous Peoples, resulting in breaches of treaty obligations and international human rights law.
(b)      Costly, time consuming and ineffective litigation is often the only remedy in place of seeking free, prior and informed consent, resulting in the State party continuing to issue permits which allow for  damage to lands.
(c)       According to information received, permits have been issued and construction has commenced at the Site C dam, despite vigorous opposition of Indigenous Peoples affected by this project, which will result in irreversible damage due to flooding of their lands leading to elimination of plants medicines, wildlife, sacred lands and gravesites.
(d)      According to information received the Site C dam project proceeded despite a joint environment review for the federal and provincial governments, which reportedly concluded that the impact of this dam on
(e)       Indigenous Peoples would be permanent, extensive, and irreversible.
(f)       According to information received the Mount Polley mine was initially approved without an environment assessment process, consultation with or free, prior and informed consent from the potentially affected Indigenous Peoples, and that the mining disaster has resulted in a disproportionate and devastating impact on the water quality, food such as fish, fish habitats, traditional medicines and the health of Indigenous Peoples in the area (art. 5-6).

20. Recalling its general recommendation No. 23 (1997) on the rights of Indigenous Peoples and reiterating its previous recommendation (CERD/C/CO19-20, para. 20) the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)       Ensure the full implementation of general recommendation No. 23, in a  transparent manner with the full involvement of the First Nations, Inuits, Métis and other Indigenous Peoples with their free prior and informed consent for all matters concerning their land rights.
(b)      Prohibit the environmentally destructive development of the territories of Indigenous Peoples, and allow Indigenous Peoples to conduct independent environmental impact studies.
(c)       End the substitution of costly legal challenges as post facto recourse in place of obtaining meaningful free prior and informed consent of Indigenous Peoples.
(d)      Incorporate the free, prior and informed consent principle in the Canadian regulatory system, and amend decision making processes around the review and approval of large-scale resource development projects like the Site C dam.
(e)       Immediately suspend all permits and approvals for the construction of the Site C dam. Conduct a full review in collaboration with Indigenous Peoples of the violations of the right to free prior and informed consent, treaty obligations and international human rights law from the building of this dam and identify alternatives to irreversible destruction of Indigenous lands and subsistence which will be caused by this project.
(f)       Publically release the results of any government studies of the Mount Polley disaster and the criminal investigation into the disaster, before the statute of limitations for charges under these Acts expires.
(g)      Monitor the impact of the disaster on affected Indigenous Peoples as a result of the disaster, and take measures to mitigate the impact through provision of safe water and food, access to healthcare, and fair remedy and reparations.
                   Corporations operating abroad 
21. While noting information received about recent judicial decisions allowing litigation against Canadian corporations operating abroad before Canadian Courts, and existing non-judicial mechanisms, the Committee is concerned that victim’s of alleged actions of transnational corporations registered in Canada, whose activities negatively impact the rights of persons outside of Canada, do not have adequate access to justice. The Committee regrets that an independent Ombudsman mandated to investigate such complaints has not yet been established (art. 6). 
22. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (CERD/C/CAN/CO/19-20, para 14), that the State party ensure access to justice through judicial and non-judicial remedies for violations of rights of persons by transnational corporations registered in Canada, operating abroad. The Committee also recommends that the State party swiftly establish an independent Ombudsman mandated to receive and investigate human rights complaints against Canadian corporations operating in other countries. 
                   Violence against Indigenous women and girls
23. The Committee is alarmed at the continued high rates of violence against Indigenous women and girls in the State party. While welcoming the 2016 launch of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, the Committee is concerned at the lack of an independent mechanism to re-examine cases where there is evidence of inadequate or biased investigations, failure to provide regular progress reports, and to build transparent and accountable relationships with survivors, families and stakeholders. (arts. 2, 5 and 6).
24. Recalling its general recommendation No. 25 (2000) on gender-related dimensions of racial discrimination, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)       Take immediate action to end violence against Indigenous women and girls. Provide support and access to equal services for survivors. Enact a National Action Plan on Violence Against Women, inclusive of the federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions, with special provisions to end the high rates of violence against Indigenous women and girls.
(b)       Apply a human rights-based approach to the Inquiry by examining the issues holistically to identify barriers to equality and their root causes and recommend lasting solutions. Monitor progress to achieve these recommendations, with the participation of affected survivors, families and stakeholders.
(c)        Establish an independent review mechanism of unsolved cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls where there is evidence of bias or error in the investigation.
(d)       Publicly report on violence against Indigenous women and girls including data on reported cases of violence, murders, and missing Indigenous women and girls, and numbers of investigations, prosecutions and convictions. 
(e)        Improve communication from the Inquiry and build transparent and accountable relationships with survivors, families and stakeholders.
                   Situation of Indigenous Peoples with disabilities 
25. The Committee is concerned by the multiple forms of discrimination faced by Indigenous Peoples with disabilities, who reportedly face additional barriers to healthcare, education and social services, in particular if they are located in remote communities with inadequate access to quality services. The Committee further regrets the lack of detailed information on meaningful consultations with Indigenous Peoples and the outcome of such consultations on the development of accessibility legislation (art. 5).
26. The Committee recommends that the State party conduct meaningful consultations with Indigenous Peoples during the development of accessibility legislation. The Committee requests information from the State party on provisions included in the accessibility legislation which address the specific situation of ethnic minorities and Indigenous Peoples with disabilities who face multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination. The Committee recommends that the State party create a strategy, in consultation with Indigenous Peoples, to ensure that Indigenous Peoples with disabilities have equal access to quality services.
                   Discrimination against Indigenous children
27. The Committee is alarmed that despite its previous recommendation (CERD/C/CAN/CO/19-20, para. 19), and multiple decisions by the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, less money is reportedly provided for child and family services to Indigenous children than in other communities, and that this gap continues to grow.  The Committee is further concerned, that the federal government has adopted an overly narrow definition of the Jordan’s Principle, as stated in the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal decision First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada et al. v. Attorney General of Canada in 2016, and has failed to address the root causes of displacement, while tens of thousands of children are needlessly removed from their families, communities and culture and placed in state care.  (arts. 1-2 and 5-6). 
28. The Committee recommends that the State party:
a. Fully comply with and implement the January 2016 ruling (2016 CHRT 2) and subsequent non-compliance orders  (2016 CHRT 10, 2016 CHRT 16, and 2017 CHRT 14)of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, and end the underfunding of First Nations, Inuit and Métis child and family services.
 b. Ensure that all children, on and off reserve, have access to all services available to other children in Canada, without discrimination.
c. Implement the full scope and meaning of Jordan’s Principle so that access to these services is never delayed or denied because of disputes between the federal, provincial and territorial governments over their respective responsibilities.
d. Address the root causes of displacement such as poverty and poor housing that disproportionately drive  children into foster care.
                   Discrimination in the Education System
29. The Committee is concerned at reported disparity in resource allocation for education and the lack of sufficient funding of mother tongue education programmes leading to unequal access to quality education, especially for African-Canadian and Indigenous children, which contributes to future socio-economic disparity among these groups. The Committee is further concerned that African-Canadian students are reportedly disciplined more harshly than other students; which forces them out of learning environments and contributes to the “school-to-prison” pipeline (art. 5).
30. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)      Ensure equal access to quality education for all children in the State party, without racial discrimination and regardless of whether the child lives on or off of a reserve.
(b)      Address funding inequalities identified in the Parliamentary Budget Officer’s 2016 report, and other funding inequalities of schools attended by Indigenous, African-Canadian and other ethnic minority children. Work in consultation with affected groups to ensure schools are in conditions comparable to and can meet the distinct cultural and linguistic needs of ethnic minorities and Indigenous students.
(c)       Create a national education strategy to prevent the low educational attainment, high dropout, suspension and expulsion rates of African-Canadian children. Collect disaggregated data on disciplinary measures of African Canadian children, to monitor and track the impact of measures to reduce discriminatory effects of disciplinary procedures.
                   Employment discrimination
31. The Committee is concerned by reports of discriminatory hiring practices and discrimination in the workplace faced by ethnic minorities, migrants and Indigenous Peoples, and high rates of unemployment of educated ethnic minorities. The Committee is concerned that reportedly no province other than Quebec has legislated mandatory employment equity for its public sector bodies, and that changes to the Federal Employment Equity regulation have reduced the labor rights approach conditions of the mandatory contractor compliance mechanism. The Committee notes that there is no mandatory employment equity for private employers at the provincial level, which accounts for approximately 76% of Canada's labour force.  The Committee welcomes the data received from the Human Rights Commission  and after the dialogue from the State party, however, it is concerned about the lack of data on labour inspections  in the State party report.
32. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a)      Ensure the elimination of discriminatory hiring practices and discrimination against ethnic minorities in the workplace including by providing adequate training to employers and awareness raising campaigns for employees about their rights and effective recourse for reporting violations. 
(b)      Conduct a comprehensive review of the existing employment equity regime and make necessary changes to increase the representation of ethnic minorities and Indigenous Peoples in the workforce.
(c)        Request all public bodies to collect and publish data on the ethnic composition of the public service periodically. That data should include statistics that disaggregate total employees, job categories, numbers at middle managerial levels and higher levels. All contractors to public service agencies should be requested to do the same.
(d)      Request private employers to publish similar disaggregated data on its workforce and to take measures to ensure the elimination of discriminatory employment practices against ethnic minorities in hiring retention and promotion.
(e)       Improve the mandatory contractor compliance mechanism’s labour rights approach conditions in the Federal Employment Equity regulation.
(f)       Request professional organizations that control the accreditation for professional practice to have their policies reviewed by the State Party with a view to determine whether there are discriminatory barriers to certification of certain ethnic candidates, particularly those who received their academic qualifications in other countries.
(g)     Take effective measures to ensure that labour inspections and other administrative or legal procedures reach all industries, with a view to detecting labour rights violations, bringing perpetrators to justice and compensating victims.
(h)     Provide in its next periodic report comprehensive data on the coverage of labour inspections and other administrative or legal procedures, including statistics of inspection visits, violations detected and sanctions or penalties imposed over the review period and compensations provided to victims, disaggregated among others by type of violation, industry or occupation, age, sex, national origin and ethnic origin of the victim.
                   Situation of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers 
33. The Committee is concerned that:
(a)       There is no legal time limit on the detention of migrants. Nearly one third of migrants were held in provincial prisons, leading to deaths in some cases.
(b)      Migrant children are detained.
(c)       There is a lack of data provided to the Committee on persons in immigration detention.
(d)      In the context of limitations in the Safe Third Country Agreement, there is a reported sharp rise in asylum seekers attempting to enter the State party through irregular border crossings, under dangerous or life-threatening conditions.  
(e)       Although the temporary foreign worker program conducts inspections, temporary migrant workers are reportedly susceptible to exploitation and abuses, and are sometimes denied basic health services, and employment and pension benefits to which they may make contributions.
(f)       There is a lack of access to health care for undocumented migrants (art. 5). 
34. In light of its general recommendation No. 22 (1986) on article 5 of the Convention on refugees and displaced persons, and No. 30 (2004) on discrimination against non-citizens, the Committee recommends that the State party: 
(a)      Undertake planned immigration detention reforms. Ensure that immigration detention is only undertaken as a last resort after fully considering alternative non-custodial measures.  Establish a legal time limit on the detention of migrants.
(b)      Immediately end the practice of detention of minors.  
(c)       Provide statistical data to the Committee in its next periodic report on the persons detained in immigration detention, reason and length of detention of migrants, disaggregated by age, gender, nationality and ethnicity. 
(d)      Rescind or at least suspend the Safe Third Country Agreement with the United States of America to ensure that all individuals who attempt to enter the State party through a land border are provided with equal access to asylum proceedings. 
(e)       Reform current policies and measures to ensure protection of temporary migrant workers from exploitation and abuse as well as grant them access to health services and employment and pension benefits. Implement protective policies for migrant workers. Reconsider the decision not to ratify the Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. Expedite the consideration for the adoption of International Labour Organization Convention No. 189 (2011) concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers. 
(f)       Ensure that all persons have access to healthcare, regardless of immigration status, without discrimination.
           D.     Other recommendations
                   Ratification of other instruments
35. The Committee recommends that the State party consider ratifying: International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance, optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure, optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, international Labour Organisation Convention No. 169 (1989) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention.
                   Follow-up to the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action
36. In the light of its general recommendation No. 33 (2009) on the follow-up to the Durban Review Conference, the Committee recommends that, when implementing the Convention in its domestic legal order, the State party give effect to the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted in September 2001 by the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking into account the outcome document of the Durban Review Conference, held in Geneva in April 2009. The Committee requests that the State party include in its next periodic report specific information on action plans and other measures taken to implement the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action at the national level.
                   International Decade for People of African Descent
37. In the light of General Assembly resolution 68/237, in which the Assembly proclaimed 2015-2024 the International Decade for People of African Descent, and resolution 69/16 on the programme of activities for the implementation of the Decade, the Committee recommends that the State party prepare and implement a suitable programme of measures and policies. The Committee requests that the State party include in its next periodic report specific information on the concrete measures adopted in that framework, taking into account its general recommendation No. 34 (2011) on racial discrimination against people of African descent.
                   Consultations with civil society
38. The Committee recommends that the State party continue consulting and increasing its dialogue with civil society organizations working to combat racial discrimination, in connection with the preparation of the next periodic report and in follow-up to the present concluding observations.
                   Declaration under article 14 of the Convention
39. The Committee encourages the State party to make the optional declaration provided for in article 14 of the Convention recognizing the competence of the Committee to receive and consider individual communications.
                   Follow-up to the present concluding observations
40. In accordance with article 9 (1) of the Convention and rule 65 of its rules of procedure, the Committee requests the State party to provide, within one year of the adoption of the present concluding observations,  information on its implementation of the recommendations contained in paragraphs 34 (a, b, and d) and 20 (e and f) above.
                   Paragraphs of particular importance
41. The Committee wishes to draw the attention of the State party to the particular importance of the recommendations contained in paragraphs 16, 18, 20 (a, b, c and d), and 32 above and requests the State party to provide detailed information in its next periodic report on the concrete measures taken to implement those recommendations.
                   Dissemination of information
42. The Committee recommends that the State party’s reports be made readily available and accessible to the public at the time of their submission and that the concluding observations of the Committee with respect to those reports be similarly publicized in the official and other commonly used languages, as appropriate.
                   Preparation of the next report
43. The Committee recommends that the State party submit its combined  twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth periodic reports, as a single document, by 15 November 2021 taking into account the reporting guidelines adopted by the Committee during its seventy-first session (CERD/C/2007/1) and addressing all the points raised in the present concluding observations. In the light of General Assembly resolution 68/268, the Committee urges the State party to observe the limit of 21,200 words for periodic reports.
                                   


                                                *   Adopted by the Committee at its ninety-third session (31 July to 25 August 2017).